C++ is a general purpose programming language.
It is an extension of C and so all the C code that you have learnt could be used when you are writing C++.
C++ is standardized by the ISO with the latest (and current) been published in September 2011. This latest iteration is also called C++ 11.
A newer iteration was drafted in the year 2014 and it is called C++ 14. C++ 14 is, however, a working draft version.
It is object-oriented in nature and the original idea is that an object-oriented program is well suited for large scale program development.